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NKS Programme Area:NKS-B
Research Area:Emergency preparedness
Report Number:NKS-97-FR6_EKO-3
Report Title:Preparedness Strategy and Procedures
Activity Acronym:EKO-3
Authors:Anneli Salo, Anders Damkjær, Jens Hovgaard, Sigurður Emil Pálsson, Jan Preuthun
Abstract:Within the framework of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research (NKS) programme four subprojects were carried out in order to assist the Nordic authorities in improving emergency response. The present report is a summary of all four subprojects; full reports of each subproject are or will be published separately. In the field of mobile measurements an exercise was carried out on Rapid Environmental Surveying using Mobile Equipment (RESUME95) in Finland in August 1995. The main purposes were to test the ability of existing airborne (10 teams), carborne (7 teams) and in situ instruments (from 8 countries) to map contaminated areas (due to the Chernobyl accident) and to establish the comparability of results obtained with different systems. Preliminary analysis showed that major features of the spatial distribution of the contaminants were identified by all teams, but that significant variations in absolute figures were observed. Quantitative analyses were undertaken to assess the comparability of the results, and the need for further development was identified. Quality assurance in sampling and analysis mainly addressed quality assurance in various aspects of gamma-ray spectroscopy with accreditation as a goal. Several details were examined; e.g. the possibility of adopting some joint reference sample geometries in the Nordic countries, the need for improving software for processing gamma-ray spectra, comparability of whole-body measurements and problems in reporting, storing and exchange of electronic data. The derivation and application of operational intervention levels (OILs) was examined to provide background material for decision makers contemplating the harmonisation of OILs. A new, probabilistic approach for deriving OILs is presented, and the method is illustrated by calculating OILs, expressed in dose rates, in a simplified setting. In contrast to the standard approach, the probabilistic approach allows for optimisation of OILs. It is argued that optimised OILs may be much higher than the presently adopted or suggested values. It is recommended that the probabilistic approach is further developed and employed in determining site- specific OILs and in optimising environmental measuring strategies. A co-operative project between radiation protection experts and agricultural and food experts was established with the ultimate aim of producing a handbook on agricultural countermeasures to be deployed in a nuclear emergency. During this project period background information on regulations, preparedness organisations in the Nordic countries and basics in radiation protection were addressed, but with regard to countermeasures the work was limited to consequence-limiting measures in agriculture during the alert period as well as during and immediately after deposition, for time reasons. The agricultural measures are discussed in relation to other urgent countermeasures; animal husbandry in the case of evacuation is one example needing good co-ordination among authorities. The pros and cons of the countermeasure options are discussed.
Publication date:01 Febr 1998
ISBN:ISBN: 87-7893-027-8
Number of downloads:1053
Download:pdf NKS-97-FR6_EKO-3.pdf
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