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NKS Programme Area:NKS-B
Research Area:Emergency preparedness
Report Number:EKO-5-96-18
Report Title:Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas
Activity Acronym:EKO-5
Authors:Kasper G. Andersson
Abstract:The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with 137Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, which is described briefly in Chapter 2, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. Chapter 6 of the report consists of 66 data sheets, each describing the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. This data forms the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. The report further contains chapters on how the data sheets were made, on how to apply the data sheets in a decontamination strategy and on how to deal with the radioactive waste that would be generated by some of the suggested procedures. Estimates of the costs of waste treatment are given in the data sheets where appropriate. A separate chapter indicates that in some cases of contamination in the absence of rain, contamination of indoor surfaces may give significant contributions to dose. The magnitude of this contribution, however, depends on the ventilation rate and the indoor deposition rate rather than for instance the material density of the building, and the contribution of the indoor surfaces to the dose has therefore little or no correlation to the dose contributions originating from outdoor contamination. References are given to recommended supplementary reading.
Publication date:01 Dec 1996
ISBN:ISBN: 87-550-2250-2
Number of downloads:928
Download:pdf EKO-5-96-18.pdf
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