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|NKS Programme Area:||NKS-B|
|Research Area:||Emergency preparedness|
|Report Title:||Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas|
|Authors:||Kasper G. Andersson|
|Abstract:||The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the
Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic
conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne
nuclear contamination (essentially with 137Cs) situation in urban areas.
The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction
and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which
were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given
are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken.
The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ
measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986.
The computer model URGENT, which is described briefly in Chapter 2, was used to apply the
information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of
Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates.
Chapter 6 of the report consists of 66 data sheets, each describing the beneficial effects, costs and
disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of
surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. This data forms the foundation for
the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project.
The report further contains chapters on how the data sheets were made, on how to apply the data
sheets in a decontamination strategy and on how to deal with the radioactive waste that would be
generated by some of the suggested procedures. Estimates of the costs of waste treatment are given
in the data sheets where appropriate.
A separate chapter indicates that in some cases of contamination in the absence of rain,
contamination of indoor surfaces may give significant contributions to dose. The magnitude of this
contribution, however, depends on the ventilation rate and the indoor deposition rate rather than for
instance the material density of the building, and the contribution of the indoor surfaces to the dose
has therefore little or no correlation to the dose contributions originating from outdoor
References are given to recommended supplementary reading.|
|Publication date:||01 Dec 1996|
|Number of downloads:||937|