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NKS Programme Area:
Organisation and safety culture
Modernisation for Maintaining and Improving Safety at Nordic Nuclear Power Plants
Lennart Hammar, Björn Wahlström, Kaisa Simola
The safety practices in Finland and Sweden are described and compared in regard of effecting
modernisation for safety of the nuclear plants in the two countries, considering new technology
and advancing safety requirements as proposed for new reactors. Particular attention is given
to strategies for applying new safety requirements to reactors built to earlier standards, and to
the interplay between the nuclear utilities and the safety authorities.
Overviews are given of past and current modernisations of the nuclear power plants in Finland
The management procedures in controlling the implementation of modifications to the nuclear
power plants are described and discussed in regard of prevailing differences between Finnish
and Swedish practices. A formal modelling technique (SADT) was applied for capture of the
essential contents of the relevant documented procedures.
Two examples of recent plant modifications in the Finnish nuclear plants in Olkiluoto and
Loviisa are described and discussed in greater detail.
Recommendations are given.